Question

6) * Earlier this semester (in the Class 1 Handout Practice Problems), we learned that individuals with an HIV infection...


Please answer with lots of explanation. It is not a pharmacology question. It is an estimation problem based off of pharmacology.

Transcribed: 6) * Earlier this semester (in the Class 1 Handout Practice Problems), we learned that individuals with an HIV infection are typically treated with a combination of three or more drugs – commonly known as HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) – to suppress viral replication. We also learned that one of the drugs included in HAART is azidothymidine (AZT), which inhibits HIV's ability to convert its single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA, and we calculated that the concentration of AZT in a | typical patient's bloodstream is 90 µg/mL. Given that AZT's molecular formula is C10H13N5O4, and given that an average human adult has ~5 L of blood in their body how many molecules of AZT are in a typical patient's body?

Answer

The body's immune system is in charge of warding off infection. It accomplishes this in a variety of methods, including physical and chemical barriers as well as cells. However, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that affects immune cells and can be transmitted from one person to another by certain bodily fluids. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to other infections and diseases. If HIV is not treated, it can progress to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

Azidothymidine (AZT) is another name for zidovudine (ZDV). It is an antiretroviral medication for patients with HIV/AIDS. AZT is usually given twice a day in combination with other antiretroviral drugs.

As given,

The blood in an average human adult = 5 L or 5000 mL.
The concentration of AZT in a typical patient's bloodstream = 90 μg/mL

Therefore, the total concentration of AZT in a typical patient's bloodstream having 5 Lof blood:

= 90×5000 μg= 4,50,000 μg= 0.45 grams

 

The molecular formula of NZT as given is C10H13N5O4.

The molecular weight of the AZT will be as follows: 

=(10×12)+(13×1)+(5×14)+(4×16) grams/mole=267 grams/mole

Thus, 267 g of NZT contains 6.022×1023molecules.

(*Avogadro constant = 6.022×1023)

Hence, 0.45grams of NZT contains

=0.45× 6.022×1023267=1.0149×1021 molecules

As described, the person has 90 μg/mL AZT in his bloodstream and has 5 Lblood. On the basis of the molecular formula given, there are about 1.0149×1021molecules of AZT in the patient's body.

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