Question

Describe how the following relate to the kidney: hilum, ureters, cortex, medulla, renal pelvis, major calyces, minor cal...


Describe how the following relate to the kidney: hilum, ureters, cortex, medulla, renal pelvis, major calyces, minor calyces, renal papillae, renal pyramid, and nephrons.

Answer

The kidneys are paired organs responsible for removing nitrogenous wastes out of the body. They are bean-shaped organs present in the retroperitoneal cavity and consist of millions of filtering units. 

The kidneys generate urine which collects in the urinary bladder. The bladder functions to store urine, and once filled results in the micturition urge. Urine is passed out of the body via the urethra.

 

Internally, the kidney can be divided into the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The cortex encloses the medulla which contains between eight-eighteen lobes. The region of the medulla enclosed is known as the renal pyramid.

As and when it collects urine, the tip of the renal pyramid known as the renal papilla empties into regions known as the minor calyces, which in turn empty into the major calyces. The major calyces all drain into the renal pelvis.

The renal pelvis extends out of the kidney at the hilum and forms the ureter which carries urine to the bladder.

The regions of the cortex entering the medulla are known as renal columns. Nephrons are present across the cortex and medulla, with most being concentrated in the cortex.

Nephrons are the functional and structural filtering units of the kidneys. They are made up of a renal corpuscle and the renal tubules. The corpuscle is initial filtering zone consisting of the Bowman's capsule and the glomeruli is known as the renal corpuscle.

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