Question

Elements in group 7A in the periodic table are called the halogens;elements in group 6A are called the chalcogens. (a)Wh...


Elements in group 7A in the periodic table are called the halogens;
elements in group 6A are called the chalcogens. (a)
What is the most common oxidation state of the chalcogens
compared to the halogens? (b) For each of the following periodic
properties, state whether the halogens or the chalcogens
have larger values: atomic radii, ionic radii of the most common
oxidation state, first ionization energy, second ionization
energy.

Answer

Periodic table represents the systematic arrangement of elements in which the properties of these repeat after regular intervals. There are 18 groups and 7 periods in the periodic table.

Valence shell refers to the outermost shell of an atom. The electrons present in the valence shell are known as valence electrons. 

In chalcogens, there are six valence electrons while in halogens there are seven valence electrons.

a. The common oxidation state of chalcogens is -2 and halogens is -1.

b. Atomic radii of an element decreases in a period. Chalcogens and halogens are present in the same period. So, the atomic radii of halogens is less than chalcogens.

If the charge on the anion is more, its has more size. So, ionic radii of chalcogens is more than halogens.

Ionization energy is defined as the energy required for the removal of electron from the outermost shell of an atom.
When first electron is removed, it is known as first ionization energy. As the size of halogens is less than chalcogens, so more energy is required to remove the electron from halogens than chalcogens. Therefore, first IE of halogens is more.

When second electron is removed, it is known as second ionization energy. Chalcogens has stable electronic configuration of half filled shell than halogens. So, chalcogen has more value of second IE.

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