Question

Which of the following statements are true regarding the formation of an ionic bond between a metal and a nonmetal? (a) ...


Which of the following statements are true regarding the formation of an ionic bond between a metal and a nonmetal?
(a) The atomic radius of a metal atom is greater than its ionic radius.
(b) The atomic radius of a nonmetal atom is less than its ionic radius.
(c) Energy is released in the formation of an ionic bond.

Answer

A chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from the valence shell of a metal to the valence shell of a nonmetal is known as the ionic bond. For example, sodium is a metal with one electron present in its valence shell while chlorine is a nonmetal with seven electrons present in its valence shell. The sodium can transfer its electron to the valence shell of chlorine. The transfer of electrons from the sodium will result in the formation of sodium ion and chlorine on accepting an electron will form chloride ion. The sodium ion and chloride ion formed will be attracted by strong electrostatic interaction to form an ionic compound. 

The formation of NaCl can be represented as follows:

Chemistry homework question answer, step 1, image 1

Since an ionic bond is formed by the complete transfer of electrons from the valence shell of a metal. The removal of an electron will from the valence shell will result in a decrease in the atomic radii of the metal. Hence it can be said that the atomic radius of the metal atom is more than that of ionic radii of metal ion. Hence statement a is correct. 

Since an extra valence shell electron is being added to the valence shell of the nonmetal during the formation of an ionic bond. The addition of an extra electron will result in a decrease in its size. Hence the ionic radii of nonmetal ion will be less than that of the atomic radii of the nonmetal. Hence statement b is also correct. 

During the formation of an ionic bond, the higher energy cation and anions are getting stabilized by the electrostatic force of attraction present. The stabilization of ions will result in a release in a lot of energy, Hence statement c is also correct. 

So all the given statements a, b, and c are correct. 

 

 

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