Which statement is false about the kidneys?a. The right kidney is positioned more inferiorly thanthe left kidney.b. The ...

Which statement is false about the kidneys?
a. The right kidney is positioned more inferiorly than
the left kidney.
b. The cortex is subdivided into renal pyramids.
c. The renal artery, renal vein, and ureter connect to
the kidney at its hilum.
d. The kidney is covered by a fibrous capsule.


The kidneys are paired bean shaped organs that function to filter the blood, removing metabolic wastes produced during different metabolic activities. The filtrate produced by kidneys is called urine and is excreted from the body.

The functional units of kidneys are known as nephrons. Each nephron filters blood and produces urine, which is eventually collected by the ureters. The ureters are paired tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder, where it is stored. From the urinary bladder, urine is excreted via the urethra.

The internal structure of the kidneys can be divided into the cortex, medulla, and renal pelvis. The cortex is the outer region, while the medulla is the inner region. Nephrons are present in the cortex of the kidneys, which gives the cortex a granular appearance. Renal pyramids are structures that form the ureters of the kidneys and found in the medullary region of the kidneys. Each kidney has around 8 renal pyramids. The renal pyramids make up the lobes of the kidneys along with the surrounding cortical regions. Hence, option b is the false statement and hence the correct answer.

The kidneys are located below the liver, just behind it. The liver is located above the right kidney. To accommodate the liver, the largest organ in the body, the right kidney is located slightly below (inferior) compared to the left kidney in the peritoneal cavity. Option a is a correct statement and is hence incorrect.

The medial part of the kidneys is a concave structure known as the hilum. The kidneys receive blood via the renal arteries. Blood is transported out of the kidneys by the renal vein. The renal arteries and veins join the kidneys at the hilum. Apart from the blood vessels, the nerves that innervate the kidneys and the ureter also link to the kidneys at the hilum. Option c is a correct statement and hence is incorrect.

The outer surface of the kidneys is covered with a dense irregular connective tissue known as the fibrous capsule. The fibrous capsule is responsible for maintaining the characteristic shape and structure of the kidneys. It also helps protect the kidneys from injuries and infection. Option d is a correct statement and hence is incorrect.

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